52. Epilogue

We began by noticing biology’s relative lack of form and structure: the lack of simple and basic ideas expressed “with the generality, precision and degree of abstractness that we are accustomed to demand in pure mathematics” (Chaitin, 2007). This shows itself as a lack of general laws, and in a poverty of predictive theories. We then suggested that this is because biology and ecology misunderstand and/or misapply basic scientific terms and concepts, and because they lack clarity in the ones specific to the disciplines. We then set about removing those misconceptions, and making terms rigorous. We showed that biological populations are vector fields with flux, divergence and curl, and that they further obey the Liouville and the Helmholtz decomposition theorems. Every biological population can therefore be uniquely specified with three—and only three—properties that we stated. We also showed that biology follows the general equation dU = Mdt = δQ - dH, dH > 0, with ecology following that of pdt + mdt = dh + du = δq, pdt > 0. We further proved that it is impossible for any biological population to be free from Darwinian evolution, and we quantified this with an experiment we conducted on Brassica rapa, also showing how values could be similarly provided for any and all populations. We finally proved that biological populations are waves, particles, and themrodynamic systems simultaneously, with biology and ecology then being quantum and relativistic disciplines that abide by both the special and the general theories of relativity. We finally provided Euler and Gibbs-Duhem equations which together allow all biological behaviour to be clearly and accurately predicted; and we stated—in both words and in mathematical formalism—the fully complete and general four laws of biology, four maxims of ecology and three constraints that govern all biological behaviour.